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tv   Global 3000  PBS  December 17, 2014 12:30am-1:01am PST

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>> ready to be knocked off your perch? then we're all set for another edition of global 3000 where - in edition to a parrot-themed look at biodiversity in action - we have the following stories coming up: death of an island paradise: the devastating cost of indonesian tin mining beauty on a branch: harnessing the rejuvenating power of the argan tree and did i mention there would be parrots? stay watching! can you spot the common element
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in the pictures you're seeing here? i'll make it easy: "element" is a clue. all these things - both old and new - need a particular metal in order to function: tin. the price of tin has risen five fold over the past 10 years. china has dominated the tin market recently, followed by malaysia and peru. indonesia, where we are going now, is in forth place. the global tin rush has turned the once beautiful indonesian island of bankga into a poisoned wasteland. but, with the fishing and tourist industries ruined, what choice do the inhabitants have but to dig for tin? the lush tropical paradise, the clothes, the faces - everything has turned brown and gray. every day, robi vaden digs deeper into the ground in search of tin, one of the most sought-after of precious metals, now that it's used in every mobile phone. >> you might say we risk our
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lives so others can use their telephones. it happens all the time: the hill caves in on you, and you're buried alive. prospecting for tin is fairly dangerous. >> bangka off the coast of sumatra is a treasure island. buried in its soil is more tin per cubic meter than anywhere else on earth. tin has made the island rich, and brutally destroyed it. bangka has become a vast no-man's land, it's landscape a sea of craters. most of the tin mining is illegal. the island is riddled with thousands of improvised mines. the earth is sucked up through big hoses and washed until nothing remains but the precious black metal. whole families live from mining: housewives, young men, the elderly, teenagers... even children. cynthia is just twelve.
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>> i come here all the time after school. working in the mine is fun. >> the big manufacturers of mobile phones, tablets and other devices make no secret of the fact that they draw tin from bangka. but with child labor? some companies have promised changes, but actions rarely follow such words. the friends of the earth environmental organization has been campaigning for years to force the companies to take more responsibility. >> we've appealed to the major electronics concerns over and over to take some action to stop the destruction of nature. but we're not seeing any progress. the companies aren't living up to their responsibility. >> added to the environmental damage and child labor is the health hazard to everyone involved in tin mining. miner basri has been confined to his mattress for three weeks, almost paralyzed with pain. he broke two ribs and his pubic
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bone, maybe even a hip. >> i can hardly remember the accident. i was working down in the mine, when the entire hill fell on me. >> the state would pay for basri's operation, but he's afraid of the doctors and the hospital. he trusts the medicine men from his village. their herbal tinctures are supposed to heal his broken bones. >> would you say the accident could have been prevented?" >> i suppose so. we could've terraced the sides of the pit. that would've made the whole slope more stable. but it would've taken time. and time is money. >> wildcat miners keep opening new pits. they're active off bangka's coast, as well. offshore mining is illegal within six kilometers of the coast, but just two kilometers out is a floating village. the makeshift rafts are lashed
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together, patched up and kept afloat with improvised repairs. the generators send a deafening roar and clouds of diesel exhaust across the water. it's hell on waves. the man in the tattered wet suit is hariono. like almost everyone here, he used to be a fisherman, but the tin boom has all but destroyed his traditional livelihood. >> my family is afraid for me. but i have to do this job, or we wouldn't be able to survive. >> sometimes a look can speak volumes. at least one casualty is certain: the sea itself. the water is almost brown from all the sediment churned up. here, too, the divers use giant hoses to suck up the seabed and everything on it: fish, crabs and coral. the marine environment is slowly dying.
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pieces of it come out on the raft above in the form of a brown sludge that has to be washed away to expose the precious tin. >> if we don't find anything right away, we go a little farther or just dig deeper. there will always be tin for us to mine. >> but the tin ore deposits are not endless. eventually, they'll be exhausted, the authorities warn. and what will the people here do then? tourists are not likely to turn up in this wasteland of rock and craters any time soon. every attempt at re-forestation so far has failed. the soil is leached and the rivers poisoned with toxic chemicals. even bangka's few conservation areas have been mercilessly stripped of tin ore for the sake of a few rupiah. in the evening, the sacks full
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of the heavy metal are sold to the traders. this mine owner is satisfied with the day's yield. her workers have extracted nearly two hundred kilos in the last few days. the ships leave bangka loaded with tin - leaving behind a devastated island. every day, its people help destroy a little more of their home, their forest and sea life. and for anyone who's ever been to bangka, the sense of joy at buying a new mobile phone may be ruined, as well. x a cautionary tale of the cost of consumerism there, and now we're going to follow it up with a story in which money really does grow on trees! don't worry though, we've not got our wires crossed. these trees are a concrete example of how a very different type of extraction is being used to the benefit of berber women in morocco.
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>> when i came to this village, it was hard to get into direct contact with the women. like usual here in the country, they're only allowed to go out of the house when accompanied by their husband, eldest son or mother-in-law. the only place you could meet women on their own was in the hammam, the turkish bath. so it was at the hammam that jamila idbourrous and the village women secretly made the plans which were to change their lives. but their story really begins here: with the argan tree. known as argania spinosa, the tree is endemic to southern morocco; it doesn't grow anywhere else in the world.
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every other year the tree bears fruit, whose kernels are used to make argan oil. the women must collect 30 to 50 kilos of fruit -- the yield fror of oil. they can't pick the fruit straight from the tree, as it has sharp thorns. it's a painstaking process. everything is done by hand and, in berber culture, it has long been considered women's work. producing argan oil is an age-old tradition. yet, much has changed since jamila idbourrous began her secret meetings with local women in the hammam a decade ago. jamila is a berber herself. but, first and foremost, she's a business woman. >> the idea was to create a co-op. so the women are not producing the oil on their own, but rather making it together. they congregate here. but the best thing is: by pooling their resources, they
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finally have enough oil to be able to market it. >> berbers have been making argan oil since the 13th century and the method has changed little. argan fruit contains a nut with a hard shell. a polished stone and lots of skill are used to crack it open. the kernels inside are then ground with a stone mill. this can take hours. it takes a woman a day or two to produce one litre of oil. she gets around 25 euros for it, but a liter sells for up to ten times that amount in germany. still, jamila negotiated a good price. 1300 women from 23 different co-ops currently supply her with oil. a worldwide distribution network is being set up. each year some 50-thousand liters are shipped to europe, canada, the us, japan and south
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korea. but argan oil has even greater potential. at the souk el ahad market in agadir, vendors sell honey, soap, lotion and spreads -- all made with argan oil. researchers are now analyzing these berber products, whose recipes have been handed down through the centuries. zoubida charrouf, a professor at morocco's largest university in rabat, has made some amazing discoveries. >> we've been able to confirm some effects scientifically. notably, that the oil has a hydrating effect on the skin. the oil contains a very high concentration of unsaturated fatty acids, so it provides a lot of moisture.
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it's also been proven to have an anti-aging effect, due to its high concentration of tocopherols, which are, in effect, antioxidants. argan oil contains practically three times as much vitamin e as olive oil. but the oil is not just used in cosmetics. scientists have already discovered that it can help fight cardiovascular disease. studies are currently underway to test the oil's effectiveness in preventing cancer. international companies have already registered over 40 patents involving argan oil, but morocco has seen little benefit. now the government there is creating laws to ensure that the country profits from such patents in future. the berber women are oblivious to what the pharmaceutical and cosmetic companies make with their oil. but the money they receive has completely changed their lives. they're now financially
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independent and often earn more than their husbands. that's increased the women's self-confidence. many now want to learn how to read and write. almost half of all moroccans are illiterate and illiteracy rates among rural women are even higher. the co-operative now employs a teacher. >> we women are completely different than we were a decade ago. back then we were illiterate and naive. through the co-op, we've learned a lot and gone to school. now we're able to communicate and negotiate with anyone. it's about more than just earning money. our very identities have changed. >> with their income, the women send their children to school. or they shop for things without having to ask their husbands for money. the women have also established a tree nursery.
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the argan seedlings need to be specially nurtured, as rainfall is unreliable in morocco. and these women's independence is reliant on the survival of the argan trees. in ten years' time, the trees are expected to bear fruit for the first time. they're an investment in the future. >> long may those trees thrive. time now for "global living rooms" - the nosiest part of the programme in which we get to take a peek into the homes of people around the world. teacher lisa austin wrote to tell us that this segment is particularly popular with her class of school children in thessaloniki. this time we'll the guest of edmilson felix de lima in brazil's sao paolo.
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♪ >> this is my apartment. i'm the manager of this highrise. i've been living here with my family for about 16 years now. let's have a look around my humble abode. >> this is the small living room. everything in this place is small everything's miniature. i spend most of my time in this living room, watching television. from here, i can keep an eye on what's happening around the entrance.
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>> and here's our mini kitchen. this is my better half my right hand. she's just brewing coffee. >> the residents' keys are in here. most of them have dropped off a spare key with me. then, if they ever lose theirs, they just come to me and don't have to go to as much trouble. they don't have to call a lockout service, when it might be after closing time.
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it's just more practical and makes life easier. >> i like to come out here onto the terrace. from here, i can observe what's going on down on the street below. and in the evening, it's a sea of light all around. it's just beautiful. alright, folks, that was my home. i wish you all the best and a great time. bye and a kiss.
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>> a kiss that's a pretty tough act to follow. there's only one thing for it: i'm going to have to bring on the parrots. not just any parrots: these are cape parrots, endemic to south africa and you got it the eastern cape. these parrots are pretty picky: feeding mostly from the seeds of one particular tree. add deforestation, climate change and a rapidly spreading virus to the mix and you can see why they need a specially named "cape parrot project" to save them from extinction. once this wild cape parrot is back to full health, she will be released. she's been suffering from 'psittacine beak and feather disease'. conservation biologist steve boyes runs a project to save the cape parrot from extinction and rebuild its populations. there are only a thousand left
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in the wild. beak and feather disease is highly contagious, and represents a mortal danger to the species. when this bird was first brought in, she was in a very bad way. >> she was very thin. she was in an awful condition. i am surprised that she survived. and that she's progressed as well as she has. to me, it's an absolute revelation. >> the virus makes the feathers fall off and the beak develop lesions. this patient could no longer fly and was stuck on the branch of a tree, when boyes and his team came to the rescue. she remained in poor health for a year and a half. then boyes started to feed her and some other sick birds the species's favorite traditional food - the fruit of the yellowwood tree. >> as soon as we started feeding them yellowwood fruits after trying everything we started to see the virus going down in their blood. so far that we couldn't even
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find it until we used a new technique and found it at very low levels. so this is the medicine for cape parrots that's missing from their diet. so it's not just a wonderful nutrition, it's a medicine for them. >> researchers here in cape town are also considering what effects climate change is having or could have on bird populations. how will vegetation and animal populations react if temperatures rise and rainfall drops? germany's development agency giz is supporting the research. >> you would need - i would say - at least another 2 degrees of temperature change and in a region of about 5 to ten percent reduction of the rainfall. if you are looking at that kind of a scenario; that - i would think - is going to start having an adverse effect on the afromontane forest. >> continuous forest used to stretch across the cape region, rich in indigenous species such
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as the yellowwood. now, there are just a few separate patches of forest left. on large plantations, foreign species prevail. if their forest habitats are further reduced, the cape parrots might be wiped out. their food of choice is already hard to find... because countless yellowwood trees, once very abundant, have been felled. this fine specimen is one thousand years old. the forests were full of mature yellowwoods until the commercial loggers came. yellowwood trees are now rare -- and their fruit as well. for centuries now, their timber has been much in demand. >> yellowwoods were part of the industrial revolution in south africa. millions of these trees were removed for rail way sleepers and mining timber.
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to send it underground. but today yellowwood - because of its beautiful colour - is one of the most valuable timbers on earth. now in some places this will sell for as much as 0 euros per cubic metre. -- 3000 euros per cubic meter. a mature tree fetches twenty-five to thirty thousand euros. although the government has set limits on the number of trees that may be felled, illegal logging continues. >> as you can see with this sawdust still here. this was very recently logged. the leaves are still alive, everything in the upper canopy is still alive. so this was in the last week. we have now lost another 200 year old, 250 year old yellowwood tree. one of very few remaining. but this carries on, each year, one tree after another. until we have one day no old yellowwood remaining. though yellowwood fruit may be the perfect food and contain an anti-viral agent, it is now scarce, and the birds have turned to acorns and pecans.
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but they contain toxins and too much fat and sugar. a century ago, yellowwood fruits were available throughout the year. now, between january and march, the parrots have nothing to eat. weakened birds are more susceptible to disease. the situation may not be entirely bleak though. boyes couldn't spot any chicks for five years. it is only healthy cape parrots that reproduce and these two look they might be about to do it. cape parrots need cavities to breed in, but suitable natural cavities are in short supply now. so the cape parrot project has put up hundreds of nesting boxes. steve boyes checks to see if they are in good condition and can keep out the rain. the project is also planning to reforest larges stretches of land -- with yelloood tr then the parrots will once again have their perfect fd -- the
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year round. e cape parrot project pays villagers to td seedlings -- of yellowwood and other indigenous species - about o euro per tree. and more money to look after them later. this is one of the poorest regions in south africa. the project offers a welcome source of additional income. >> this project is very good for us as a community. because when we get money out of this project we buy things like chairs and tiles to make our community all beautiful. >> in this one valley, ten thousand trees have already been planted. there should be a million more to come. >> our education with the local people would have them taking
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care of those trees for the next 25 years, for the next 100 years. as these forests grow up and big again. that's what we are looking to do: is keep this growing. establish ourselves one hundred miles to the north all the way down this mountain range. that we will do this with all the mmunities, maybe 50 communities by the end. so this is a big idea all for one parrot... we need to restore everything we've done. specially to the forests of the world. the lungs of our planet. >> and parrots are where we part. that's all for this week, (you can find more information on global 3000 on our website and facebook.) thanks for watching and goodbye.
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[upbeat twangy music] ♪ >> ♪ world go away >> hank cochran is, without a doubt, one of the greatest songwriters ever on earth. >> ♪ and i fall to pieces
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>> it's important historically that people know who hank cochran was and what he did, and he always wanted to be the hemingway of country music, and i think he did it. >> it's stunning when you look at the body of work that he was able to accomplish and stay relevant for so long. that's way out of the ordinary. >> ♪ i've got everything ♪ everything but you >> they will be recording hank cochran songs way down the line and probably not even know who he was. >> i think it's really important for people to understand where country music came from and the era of the '50s and '60s, which is hank cochran, harlan howard, willie nelson, roger miller. these guys set the standard for writing songs. >> ♪ don't you ever get tired ♪ of hurting me
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♪ he was responsible, really, for me going to nashville and getting a job writing for pamper music. hank had a lot to do with me getting started. >> i met hank. he reached out his hand and had a cd that already had my name on it. i kind of gathered that this wasn't by chance. >> shortly after he first met him, hank was diagnosed with pancreatic cancer, so for the two years he lived after that, jamey would get off the road and pull his bus right up to the hospital, ran up to see hank, raise hank's spirits, and just--he was always--always around. up to the night hank died, he was here. >> ♪ now tell me ♪ would these arms ♪ be in your way >> it was shortly after hank died i got a text message, and it was from jamey, and he said, "would you mind if i did a hank cochran album?"
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so i couldn't believe it, you know. >> ♪ so lay ♪ all your doubts aside ♪ when you go to bed tonight >> he should be in the country music hall of fame. he was very influential in setting the bar for all the writers that we have coming down the line. >> well, he was pretty much the foundation as a songwriter for a long time. >> you know, he was really an artist who chose not to be an artist. all of the artists respected his ability to perform a song. the singers wanted to see if they could just sing that good. i know i did. >> if i had to dream up somebody like hank to influence songwriters, i couldn't have done a better job. he influenced you not only as an artist and songwriter, but also just as a person. [upbeat twangy music] ♪
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♪ >> memphis, tennessee. it has been written, if music were religion, then memphis would be jerusalem and sun studio its most sacred shh ripe. -- shrine. you are here with amber rubarth. ♪ >> resorts casino and hotel in tunica, mississippi, proud to sponsor sun studio sessions on public television. >> sun studio sessions and its performers are brought to you in part by the american society of composers, authors and
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